Plain text below from Newman (1875) is out-of-copyright in the U.K. and U.S.
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search on Google Books for prior uses of the exact phrase “Beyond Vegetarianism” - the name of this web site - yielded an article
by Francis William Newman, published in at least one magazine in
Relevant excerpts from the article are provided below. For the most part, the text below is as-published, with only minor edits to correct punctuation and a few explanatory notes inserted, designated by square brackets [ ]. Some of the language is dated, and some of the technical claims made below are now known to be incorrect. The material is presented here for historical purposes only.
Article title: Vegetarianism
Author: Francis William Newman
Periodical: Fraser's magazine, edited by Thomas Carlyle, volume 11
Date: February 1875
See appendix for additional details, alternate sources, and URLs for free access to full text.
Text from Newman (1875, pp. 157-158):
[A vegan, a fruitarian, and concerns re: dairy products]
such complexity in the questions concerned, there is evidently room for great
variety in the details of vegetarian practice. We might expect, what indeed we
find, a few vegetarians rigid in the extreme. The late Mr. George Dornbusch, of
Text from Newman (1875, pp. 162-163):
[Concerns re: use of dairy and eggs in vegetarian diets]
“It is generally imagined, that in vegetarian cookery great quantities of milk and eggs are necessarily used. This is a gross mistake; and some vegetarians do not use these articles at all. Still, it is unfortunate, that when they are not entirely renounced it is always open to opponents to assert that they are inordinately used; and this often is asserted very broadly, though without any attempt at proof—proof and disproof being alike difficult. The assertion springs out of two erroneous assumptions, (i) that there is in every vegetarian a craving after the nitrogenous element supplied by the lean of meat, by milk and by eggs; (2) that the supply cannot be obtained from purely vegetarian food. The second error ought not to be made in the present state of science. For more than twenty years it has been notorious, and conceded beyond controversy, that the gluten of wheaten brown bread and of barley is chemically identical with albumen [same as albumin: protein present in blood plasma, eggs]; that is to say, with the substance of flesh meat; also that beans, peas, and lentils are richer in nitrogen than is lean beef itself. The purest vegetarian does not need to suffer from any deficiency of nitrogenous food, and vegetarians in general steadily deny that they have any craving for such food. Indeed, it has been in more recent years ascertained that the nitrogenous or flesh-forming element is of immensely less importance than the heat-giving element, for the latter is that which gives vital force. If a man works very hard, he somewhat wears away the muscular tissues, on which account he needs a little more of albumen ; but the exhaustion of vital force is by far the graver drain upon him, and even when we work least, there must be large expenditure of the latter kind. Starchy and oily substances supply heat and force; and these substances abound in the vegetable world. If any vegetarians are extravagant in milk and eggs, it is not from any craving of their stomachs, but from excess of zeal or ignorance in their cooks. In every house of moderate wealth the cook likes to make her dishes highly palatable, and will probably be lavish in the use of these popular delicacies, unless steadily checked by the mistress. To the present writer, ever since he has adopted vegetarian practice, it has been matter of conscience not to increase his use of eggs and milk—of milk especially; because to make a run on it, involves all the same evils as to make a run on butchers' meat. In fact, if any one can reconcile himself to the use of oil in cookery, there is no difficulty whatever; otherwise there is probably a necessary increase in the use of butter in preparing vegetables when other animal fats are refused. Different vegetable oils have, no doubt, different flavours, and a little more experience will teach us how, by a slight addition of vegetable acid or of some savoury herb, any taste of an oil offensive to an individual may be corrected. Skim-milk, buttermilk, and cheese retain the nitrogenous element; hence, added to potatoes or bread, they make very complete human food. In buying up the country butter, the towns do not rob the rustics quite so cruelly as when they take the milk itself; still it is very inexpedient and essentially unfair. If vegetarians are to hold up a noble and profitable example to others, they must not only jealously restrict their own consumption of milk and its products, but ever be aiming to lessen it.”
Text from Newman (1875, pg. 171):
[Implicit animal rights and opposition to use of animals in sports and for scientific experimentation]
may now briefly touch on the Third great topic of this argument —our right over
the lives of animals. A new religion on this very point is rising on the world
Full text of the source article is available, free to all at the URL listed in the Appendix. Readers are encouraged to read the full text, as the original article addresses other topics that may be of interest.
Appendix A: source details
Additional information on main source article:
Fraser's magazine is the new title/new series of the magazine issued as Fraser's magazine for town and country in the period 1830-1869. Full text of the source article is freely available via Google books at the URL:
The same article (or a version/excerpt thereof) was also published in 1875 in The Garden: an illustrated weekly journal of gardening in all its branches. At the time this is written (June 2010), full text is not available on Google Books for this citation. See:
The source article was republished in the 1883 book, Essays on Diet, by Francis William Newman, full text of which is also available on Google Books:
Note: the URLs above work as of June 2010. However, they will not be maintained/updated. If they do not work for you, do an Advanced Search on Google Books for the exact phrase “beyond vegetarianism” in the period 1830-1900, to find all references: http://books.google.com/advanced_book_search
Appendix B: context of the date, 1875
careful reading of the excerpts suggests that some of the material refers to events
before 1875. For clarity and precision, the title phrase: “
Vegan Society (U.K.) 2010, web page: History, URL: http://www.vegansociety.com/about/history.aspx
--Thomas E. (Tom) Billings
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